There is no such text search mode in InDesign. But there is the script!
This script implements the ability, which is not available in InDesign, to find in the layout the text taken to the clipboard in another file (PDF) or program (Word).
Of course, there is the possibility of searching for text in InDesign, but for solving this problem, the result will be zero. But this program searches successfully.
Obviously, it can also be used to search for text in the layout stories, it is enough to take the words into the clipboard, determine where to look and run the program. It's faster than using the Find/Change panel.
This program is for InDesign CS6+.
This program (Ru, En, Es) is here: